Key Financial Terms
Navigating the real estate market can be overwhelming, with a plethora of unfamiliar terms and phrases. We understand that this can make the process of buying or renting a property daunting, which is why we have created this guide to help you understand some of the most commonly used property jargons.
From the early stages of searching for a property, to signing the contract and completing the transaction, this guide will help you to understand the terms used by estate agents, conveyancers, and other professionals in the real estate industry. We hope that this will make your experience of finding a new home or investment property more straightforward and enjoyable.
In this guide, you will find definitions for terms such as “amortization,” “deposit,” “escrow,” and many more. The guide is continually updated to reflect the latest changes in the industry and the terminologies used.
- Accounts payable – a record of all unpaid short-term (less than 12 months) invoices, bills and other liabilities. Examples of accounts payable include invoices for goods or services, bills for utilities and tax payments due.
- Accounts receivable – a record of all short-term accounts (less than 12 months) from customers you sell to but are yet to pay. These customers are called debtors and are generally invoiced by a business.
- Accounts receivable finance – see Factoring.
- Accrual accounting – an accounting system that records transactions at the time they occur, whether the payment occurs now or in the future.
- Amortisation – the process of offsetting assets such as goodwill and intellectual property over a period of time. See also Depreciation.
- Assets – things you own. These can be cash or something you can convert into cash such as property, vehicles, equipment and inventory.
- Audit – a check by an auditor or tax official on your financial records to check that you account for everything correctly.
- Bad debts – money that is unlikely to be paid in the near future.
- Balance sheet – a snapshot of a business on a particular date. It lists all of your assets and liabilities and works out the net assets.
- Balloon payment – a final lump sum payment due on a loan agreement. Loans with a larger final ‘balloon payment’ have lower regular repayments over the term of the loan.
- Bank reconciliation – a cross-check that ensures the amounts in your cashbook match the relevant bank statements.
- Bankrupt – an individual is bankrupt when they cannot pay their debts and aren’t able to reach an agreement with their creditors.
- Bankruptcy – a process where an individual is legally bankrupt and an appointed trustee manages their assets and financial affairs.
- Benchmark – a set of conditions against which you can measure a product or business.
- Benchmarking – the process of comparing your business to similar businesses in your industry.
- Bill of sale – a legal document for the purchase of property or other assets that details the purchase, where it took place, and for how much.
- Bookkeeping – the process of recording the financial transactions of a business.
- Bootstrapping – where a business funds its growth purely through personal finances and revenue from the business.
- Bottom line – see Net profit.
- Break-even point – the exact point when a business’s income equals its expenses.
- Budget – a listing of planned revenue and expenditure for a given period.
- Capital – wealth in the form of money or property owned by a business.
- Capital cost – a one-off substantial purchase of physical items such as plant, equipment, building or land.
- Capital gain – the amount gained when an asset sells above its original purchase price.
- Capital growth – an increase in the value of an asset.
- Cash – includes all money available on demand, including bank notes and coins, petty cash, certain cheques, and money in savings or debit accounts.
- Cash accounting – an accounting system that records transactions at the time you actually receive money payment.
- Cash book – a daily record of all cash, credit or cheque transactions received or paid out by a business.
- Cash flow – the measure of actual cash flowing in and out of a business.
- Cash incoming – money that is flowing into the business.
- Cash outgoing – money that is flowing out of the business.
- Chart of accounts – an index of the accounts a business will use to classify transactions. Each account represents a type of transaction such as asset, liability, owner’s equity, income, and expense.
- Chattel mortgage – similar to a hire-purchase agreement although the business owns the asset from the start. Chattel mortgages require regular ongoing payments and typically provide the option of reducing the payments through the use of a final ‘balloon’ payment.
- Collateral – see Security.
- Commercial bill (also known as a bill of exchange) – a form of commercial loan on an interest only basis, or interest reducing basis. Commercial bills typically require some sort of security and suit short-term funding needs such as inventory.
- Contingent liability – a liability where payment is made only if a particular event or circumstance occurs.
- Cost of goods sold – the total direct costs of producing a good or delivering a service.
- Credit – a lending term for when a customer purchases a good or service with an agreement to pay at a later date. This could be an account with a supplier, a store credit card or a bank credit card.
- Creditor – a person or business that allows you to purchase a good or service with an agreement to pay at a later date. A creditor is also anyone who you owe money to, such as a lender or supplier.
- Credit limit – a dollar amount that you cannot exceed on a credit card or the maximum lending amount offered for a loan.
- Credit rating – a ranking applied to a person or business based on their credit history that represents their ability to repay a debt. Visit ASIC’s MoneySmart website to learn more about credit ratings– external site.
- Credit history – a report detailing an individual’s or business’s past credit arrangements. A lender may seek a credit history when assessing a loan application. Visit ASIC’s MoneySmart website to read more about credit reports– external site.
- Crowdfunding – is a way of financing your business idea through donations of money from the public. This usually occurs online, through a crowdfunding website.
- Current asset – an asset in cash or something you can convert into cash within 12 months.
- Current liability – a liability that is due for payment within 12 months.
- Debit – in double-entry bookkeeping, a debit is an entry made on the left-hand side of a journal or ledger representing an asset or expense.
- Debt – any amount that you owe including bills, loan repayments and income tax.
- Debt consolidation – the process of combining several loans or other debts into one for the purposes of obtaining a lower interest rate or reducing fees.
- Debt finance – money provided by an external lender, such as a bank or building society.
- Debtor – a person or business that owes you money.
- Debtors finance – See Factoring.
- Default – a failure to pay a loan or other debt obligation.
- Depreciation – the process of offsetting an asset over a period of time. You can depreciate an asset to spread the cost of the asset over its useful life.
- Disbursements – money that a business spends.
- Discount – a reduction applied to a full priced good or service. See also Mark down.
- Double-entry bookkeeping – is a bookkeeping method that records each transaction in 2 accounts, both as a debit and a credit.
- Drawings – personal expenses paid for from a business account.
- Drip pricing– external site – is when one price is presented at the beginning of an online shopping experience. Gradually, incremental fees and charges are added (or ‘dripped’) as you progress, for example, when buying a plane ticket. Drip pricing can result in the customer paying a higher price for a service or product than they first thought. However, you are required to show fees and charges at the beginning of an online shopping process and not gradually add them in.
- Employee share schemes– external site – where you give your employees the opportunity to buy shares in your company. Other terms include an ’employee share purchase plan’ or an ’employee equity scheme’.
- Encumbered – an encumbered asset is one that is currently put forward as security or collateral for a loan.
- Equity – the value of ownership interest in the business, calculated by deducting liabilities from assets. See also Owner’s equity.
- Equity finance – money provided to a business in exchange for part ownership of the business. This can be money invested by the business owners, friends, family, or investors like business angels and venture capitalists.
- Excise duty – an indirect tax levied on certain types of goods produced or manufactured in Australia including petrol, alcohol, tobacco and coal.
- Facility – an arrangement such as an account offered by a financial institution to a business (such as a bank account, a short-term loan or overdraft).
- Factoring (also known as debtor’s finance and accounts receivable finance) – when a factor company buys a business’s outstanding invoices at a discount. The factor company then chases up the debtors. Factoring is a way to get quick access to cash, but can be quite expensive compared to traditional financing options.
- Finance – money used to fund a business or high value purchase.
- Financial year – a 12-month period typically from 1 July to 30 June.
- Financial statement – a summary of a business’s financial position for a given period. Financial statements can include a profit and loss, balance sheet and cash flow statement.
- Fixed asset – a physical asset used in the running of a business.
- Fixed cost – a cost that is not part of producing a good or service.
- Fixed interest rate – when the interest rate of a loan remains the same for the term of the loan or an agreed timeframe.
- Float – when a private company offers shares in the company to the public for the first time. See Initial public offering.
- Forecast – a list of future financial transactions. Forecasts help to plan a more accurate budget.
- Fringe benefits – non-monetary benefits, such as company cars and mobile phones, included as part of a salary package.
- Fully drawn advance – is a long term loan with the option to fix the interest rate for a period. These loans are usually secured and can help fund a new business or equipment.
- Goodwill – an intangible asset that represents the value of a business’s reputation.
- Gross income – the total money earned by a business before you deduct expenses.
- Gross profit (also known as net sales) – the difference between sales and the direct cost of making the sales.
- Guarantor – a person who promises to pay a loan in the event the borrower cannot meet the repayments. The guarantor is legally responsible for the debt.
- Hire-purchase – a type of contract where you purchase a good through an initial deposit. You then rent it and pay the balance off in instalments plus interest charges. When you make the final payment, ownership of the good transfers to the purchaser. Also known as rent to buy.
- Initial public offering (IPO) – when a company first offers shares on the stock market to sell them to the general public. Also known as floating on the stock market. Visit ASIC’s MoneySmart website for more information about IPOs– external site.
- Insolvent – a business or company is insolvent when they cannot pay their debts as and when they are due.
- Intangible assets – non-physical assets with no fixed value, such as goodwill and intellectual property rights.
- Interest – the cost of borrowing money on a loan or earned on an interest-bearing account.
- Interest rate – a percentage used to calculate the cost of borrowing money or the amount you will earn. Rates vary from product to product and generally the higher the risk of the loan, the higher the interest rate. Rates may be fixed or variable.
- Inventory – a list of goods or materials a business is holding for sale.
- Investment – the purchase of an asset for the purpose of earning money such as shares or property. Visit ASIC’s MoneySmart website for more about personal investing– external site.
- Invoice – a document to a customer to request payment for a good or service received.
- Invoice finance – finance based on the strength of a business’s accounts receivable. This form of financing is similar to factoring, except that the invoices or accounts receivable remain with the business. See also Factoring
The j-curve illustrates the internal rate of return (IRR) of a fund (or an investment) over time. It is typical in a private equity fund that during its first one or two years, the fund will show a negative return. This is due to the impact of the start-up costs. The fund’s returns will start to rise as soon as the first realisations are made. After approximately three to six years, the fund’s interim IRR will approach its final IRR.
- Key performance indicator (KPI)
(in relation to managing performance) A type of performance measurement (using either qualitative or quantitative data) on the efficiency or effectiveness of activities in achieving purposes. Related terms:evaluation and monitoring.
- Kangaroo bond
Bond issued by a foreign company or body (such as the Asian Development Bank) in Australian dollars. Also known as a Matilda Bond.
- Liability – any financial expense or amount owed.
- Line of credit – an agreement allowing a borrower to withdraw money from an account up to an approved limit.
- Liquidate – to quickly sell all the assets of a company and convert them into cash.
- Liquidation – the process of winding up an insolvent company. An appointed administrator will do this by ceasing business operations, selling assets, and paying creditors and shareholders.
- Liquidity – how quickly you can convert assets into cash.
- Loan – a finance agreement where a business borrows money and pays it back in instalments (plus interest) within a specified period of time.
- Loan to value ratio (LVR) – your loan amount shown as a percentage of the market value of the property or asset that you purchase. The ratio helps a lender work out if they can recover the loan amount if the loan goes into default.
- Margin – the difference between the selling price of a good or service and the profit. Margin is generally shown as a gross margin percentage which shows the proportion of profit for each sales dollar.
- Margin call – when the value of a property or asset falls below a certain loan to value ratio (LVR). For higher risk loans such as margin loans, the lender will request further payment to bring the LVR back to the agreed percentage. See also Loan to value ratio (LVR).
- Mark down – a discount applied to a product during a promotion or sale for the purposes of attracting sales or for shifting surplus or discontinued products. See also Discount.
- Mark up – the amount added to the cost price of goods, to help determine a selling price. Essentially it is the difference between the cost of the good/service and the selling price. It does not take into account what proportion of the amount is profit.
- Maturity date – when a loan’s term ends and all outstanding principal and interest payments are due.
- Net assets (also known as net worth, owner’s equity or shareholder’s equity) – the total assets minus total liabilities.
- Net income – the total money earned by a business after tax and other deductions.
- Net profit (also known as your bottom line) – the total gross profit minus all business expenses.
- Net worth – see Net assets.
- Overdraft facility – a finance arrangement where a lender allows a business to withdraw more than the balance of an account.
- Overdrawn account – a credit account that has exceeded its credit limit or a bank account that has had more than the remaining balance withdrawn.
- Overheads – the fixed costs associated with operating a business such as rent, marketing, utilities and administrative costs. See also Fixed costs.
- Owner’s equity – see Net assets.
- Personal property – covers any property someone can own, except for land, buildings and fixtures. Examples include goods, plant and equipment, cars, boats, planes, livestock and more.
- Personal Property Security Register (PPSR) – the PPSR– external site replaces a number of registers of security interests. It provides a single national noticeboard of security interests in personal property.
- Petty cash – cash for small miscellaneous purchases such as postage.
- Plant and equipment – a group of fixed assets used in the operation of a business such as furniture, machinery, fit-out, vehicles, computers and tools.
- Principal – the original loan amount borrowed or the remainder of the original borrowed amount that is still owing (excluding the interest portion).
- Profit – the total revenue a business earns minus the total expenses. See also Revenue.
- Profit and loss statement (also known as an income statement) – a financial statement listing sales and expenses. Use it to work out the gross and net profit of a business.
- Profit margin – see Margin.
- Projection – see Forecast.
A specialist usually working in portfolio management or bond research who develops systems that map past movements in financial markets with a view to predicting future equity, commodity and currency values.
Investment surveys rank investment managers according to the investment performance of their products. Managers in the top quarter of those participating in the survey are said to be “top quartile performers”. Similarly, an investment manger’s performance may fall in the second, third or fourth quartile, or be simply “above average” (quarters one and two combined).
- R&D – stands for ‘research and development’. Businesses conduct research and development to innovate, create new products and find better ways of doing things.
- Receipts – a document given to a customer to confirm payment and to confirm the sale of a good or service.
- Record keeping – the process of keeping or recording information that explains certain business transactions. Record keeping is a requirement under tax law.
- Refinance – when a new loan helps to pay off an existing one. Reasons to refinance include: extending the original loan over a longer period of time, reduce fees or interest rates, switch banks, or move from a fixed to variable loan.
- Rent to buy – a finance arrangement where you purchase something through an initial deposit and then ‘lease’ it while pay it off. After the final payment, the purchaser has the option (but no obligation) to buy the good or continue leasing. See also Hire-purchase.
- Repossess – the process of a bank or other lender taking ownership of property/assets for the purpose of paying off a loan in default.
- Retention of title – a clause in contracts where a buyer may receive property, but doesn’t take legal ownership until the full price is paid.
- Return on investment (ROI) – a calculation that works out how efficient a business is at generating profit from the original equity from the owners/shareholders. It’s a way of thinking about the benefit (return) of the money you invest into the business. To calculate ROI, divide the gain (net profit) of the investment by the cost of the investment. The ROI then becomes a percentage or a ratio.
- Return on investment (ROI) formula example – Annie buys $1000 worth of stocks and sells the stocks a year later for $1500. The net profit is $500. ROI = (500/1000) = 0.5 x 100 = 50%. Annie’s ROI on the stocks is 50%.
- Revenue (also known as turnover) – the amount earned before expenses, tax and other deductions.
- Single-entry bookkeeping – a bookkeeping method within a cash accounting system that records one side of each transaction.
- Scam – a deliberate and targeted deception to obtain money or information unlawfully.
- Security (also known as collateral) – property or assets that a lender can take ownership of when repayment of a loan does not occur.
- Shareholder’s equity – see Net assets.
- SMSF – stands for self-managed superannuation fund– external site. An SMSF is a way of saving for your retirement. Unlike other super funds, an SMSF is self-managed, which means you’re responsible for making sure the super fund complies with super and tax laws. ASIC’s MoneySmart also has useful information on SMSFs– external site.
- Stock – the actual goods or materials a business currently has on hand.
- Stocktaking – a regular process involving a physical count of merchandise and supplies actually held by a business, to verify stock records and accounts.
- Superannuation – money set aside for retirement that must go into a complying superannuation fund. There is useful information on ASIC’s MoneySmart website about businesses paying their employees super– external site.
- Tax invoice – an invoice required for the supply of goods or services over a certain price. You need a valid tax invoice when claiming GST credits. See also Invoice
- Turnover – See Revenue.
- Unbankable money – Relevant money that has been received by an official of a Commonwealth entity or a minister, and cannot be deposited in banks in Australia, or in the place where the money was received. For example, banks in Australia do not accept foreign currency coinage.Unbankable money, since it cannot be used as money, is treated as relevant property and can be used, managed or disposed of by the entity’s accountable authority in accordance with the PGPA Rule and the entity’s internal controls..
- Underlying cash balance – A cash measure that shows whether the Government has to borrow from financial markets to cover its activities. The underlying cash balance is calculated as net cash receipts from operations (excluding Future Fund earnings), plus financing adjustments (to remove cash flows more appropriately viewed as financing in GFS), plus net cash flows from capital investment (net cash investment in non-financial assets worsens underlying cash balance as such investment is integral to the operation of Government). Related term:fiscal balance.
- Underfunded superannuation scheme – A scheme where the employer does not pay contributions to a superannuation fund. Instead, the employer contributes when the employee’s benefit is paid. For taxation purposes, it is also known as an untaxed scheme. Some schemes provide a combination of funded and unfunded benefits.
- Variable interest rate – when the interest rate of a loan changes with market conditions for the duration of the loan.
- Variable cost – a cost that changes depending on the number of goods produced or the demand for the products or service.
- Venture capital – an investment in a start-up business that has excellent growth prospects. However, it does not have access to capital markets because it is a private company.
- Waiver – A special concession granted to an individual or other body that extinguishes a debt or other amount owing to the Commonwealth. Waivers may be granted by the Finance Minister (or a delegate) under section 63 of the PGPA Act.
- Warranty – A promise whereby one party provides certain assurances to another party. Warranties often relate to asset and sales agreements. For example, where an entity sells an asset to a third party it may provide a warranty that the entity has a right to sell the asset, the asset is fit for use and defective parts will be replaced within a specified period. A warranty may give rise to a contingent liability.
- Weighting – Percentage or proportion of the portfolio invested in each asset class.
- Write downs – A decrease in the market value of an investment established by a valuation.
- Yield – A measure of return on an investment expressed as a percentage (calculated by dividing the income from an asset by its current capital value).
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